**this page is an overview….click on the What To Eat tab for day to day advice**
When you eat your body sees the food as basically three large things (macronutrients): PROTEIN, FAT, and/or CARBOHYDRATES. Most foods are a combination of these three with the predominate nutrient determining is classification. For example lean fish is considered a PROTEIN and fatty fish is considered to be in the FAT category. Beyond that, the quality of the food determines its micronutrient content.
Examples above. Nuts, seeds, egg yolks, dark meat, oils, butter, full fat dairy
“Lipids” include the following molecules: fatty acids, oils, waxes, sterols like cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, etc.
(Side note: your body packages “lipids” (cholesterol and trigylcerides) into water soluble “suit cases” called lipoprotein particles…these are subdivided into cholymicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL…common lipid panels from your doctor measure how much cholesterol is in these suitcases, but do not measure how many suitcases there are.)
“Fatty acids” are the building blocks of fat in our food and our bodies.
“Fats” are a subclass of lipids and are made of chains of fatty acids and glycerol…they may be monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, etc. Fatty acids can be subdivided into short, medium, or long as well as either satura ted, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated, based on the number of double bonds that exist in the fat’s molecular structure. For each of these three classes, there exists a large number of different chemical variations or “isomers”.
Isomer designation – the first number of this designation indicates how many carbon atoms are in the fatty acid molecule, and the number after the colon indicates the number of double bonds. Omega-3 and omega-6 isomers include “n-3” and “n-6” markings, and the letters c and t are used to indicate whether the double bonds are in cis or trans configurations.
This table includes systematic (non-numerical) names, as well as common names.
Fatty Acid Equivalent Names
|Isomer||Systematic Name||Common Name|
|4:0||butanoic acid||butyric acid|
|6:0||hexanoic acid||caproic acid|
|8:0||octanoic acid||caprylic acid|
|decanoic acid||capric acid|
|12:0||dodecanoic acid||lauric acid|
|14:0||tetradecanoic acid||myristic acid|
|16:0||hexadecanoic acid||palmitic acid|
|17:0||heptadecanoic acid||margaric acid|
|octadecanoic acid||stearic acid|
|20:0||eicosanoic acid||arachidic acid|
|22:0||docosanoic acid||behenic acid|
|24:0||tetracosanoic acid||lignoceric acid|
|Type||Isomer||Systematic Name||Common Name|
|Monounsaturated Fats||14:1||tetradecenoic acid||myristoleic acid|
|16:1 undifferentiated||hexadecenoic acid||palmitoleic acid|
|18:1 undifferentiated||octadecenoic acid||oleic acid|
|20:1||eicosenoic acid||gadoleic acid|
|22:1 undifferentiated||docosenoic acid||erucic acid|
|24:1 c||cis-tetracosenoic acid||nervonic acid|
|Type||Isomer||Systematic Name||Common Name|
|Polyunsaturated Fats||16:2 undifferentiated||hexadecadienoic acid|
|18:2 undifferentiated||octadecadienoic acid||linoleic acid|
|18:2 n-6 c,c|
|18:2 t not further defined|
|18:3 undifferentiated||octadecatrienoic acid||linolenic acid (LA)|
|18:3 n-3 c,c,c||alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)|
|18:3 n-6 c,c,c||gamma-linolenic acid|
|18:4 undifferentiated||octadecatetraenoic acid||parinaric acid|
|20:2 n-6 c,c||eicosadienoic acid|
|20:4 undifferentiated||eicosatetraenoic acid||arachidonic acid|
eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
|22:5 n-3||docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)||
docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)
High Omega 6 PUFAs: Highly Processed Industrial Seed or Vegetable Oils (soybean oil, peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil/rapeseed oil, grapeseed oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil).
Must be broken down into their component Amino Acids to be used for growth or repair. Can also be converted to glucose for fuel or subsequently into triglycerides and stored as fatty acids.
Examples: Meat, fish, eggs, dairy, soy
Table of AMINO ACIDS:
Generally Starches and Sugars are all broken down into their smallest component and used as glucose for fuel or storage (as glycogen or converted and stored as fatty acids). Fibers and Fructose are handled differently…
Examples: Starches, sugars, cereal, flour, bread, fruit, potatoes
Carbohydrates (aka saccharides) are divided into four groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Mono- and disaccharides are smaller and generally called “sugars”.
The terms “Simple” (candy, table sugar, fruit) and “Complex” (cereals, breads, pasta) are informal, do not necessarily have significance, and can lead to confusion.
sucrose (glucose + fructose): table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, saccharose
maltose (glucose + glucose): malt sugar
lactose (glucose + galactose): milk sugar
lactulose (galactose + fructose)
others: trehalose, cellobiose, chitobiose
starch (a polymer of glucose)
- soluble fiber (fructans, inulin, pectin, alginic acid)
- sources: fruits, vegetables, legumes, algae
- insoluble fiber (beta-glucans: cellulose, chitin. Hemicellulosen, Lingin, Xanthan)
- sources: plants, fruits, vegetables, cereals, wheat, rye, oats, legumes, insects
- inulin and oligofructose (onions, garlic, leeks, chichory root, aspargus)
- resistant starch (bannana, legumes, heated and cooled starches)
The GLYCEMIC INDEX and GLYCEMIC LOAD are scientific calculations that can tell you how quickly and to what extend a particular food will impact your blood sugars. **more on this topic to follow**
Essential vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, and trace elements
- Water Soluble: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamine (B12), niacin, pantothanic acide, folic acid, biotin, lipoic acid, vitamin C.
- Fat Soluble: vitamins A, D, E, K.
- Major: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium.
- Trace: iron, iodine, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, fluorine, tin, silicon, vandium
- inositol, choline, carnitine
This is a broad category of food elements typical from fruits in vegetables that have been identified and believed to have certain properties.
- e.g. lycopene in tomatos
- Favonoids (anthocyanidins, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, isoflavones)
- Phenolic acids (hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates)
- Non-flavonoids (stibenes, coumarins, lignans
- Carotenoids, monoterpenes
- Sulfur compounds (sulfides)
- Dially sulfides, isothiocyanates
- Triterpenoids, steroids
A broad range of substances found in food that may have various negative consequences when consumed.
- e.g. lectins, phytates, nightshades
**this page is under construction…check back for more updates**