Nutrition 101

**this page is an overview….click on the What To Eat tab for day to day advice**

When you eat your body sees the food as basically three large things (macronutrients): PROTEIN, FAT, and/or CARBOHYDRATES.  Most foods are a combination of these three with the predominate nutrient determining is classification.  For example lean fish is considered a PROTEIN and fatty fish is considered to be in the FAT category.  Beyond that, the quality of the food determines its micronutrient content.

MACRONUTRIENTS 

FAT

classes of fat pyramid jpgFats can be used immediately for fuel or stored.

Examples above. Nuts, seeds, egg yolks, dark meat, oils, butter, full fat dairy

“Lipids” include the following molecules: fatty acids, oils, waxes, sterols like cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, etc.

(Side note: your body packages “lipids” (cholesterol and trigylcerides) into water soluble “suit cases” called lipoprotein particles…these are subdivided into cholymicrons, VLDL, LDL, HDL…common lipid panels from your doctor measure how much cholesterol is in these suitcases, but do not measure how many suitcases there are.)

“Fatty acids” are the building blocks of fat in our food and our bodies.

“Fats” are a subclass of lipids and are made of chains of fatty acids and glycerol…they may be monoglycerides, diglycerides, triglycerides, etc.  Fatty acids can be subdivided into short, medium, or long as well as either satura ted, monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated, based on the number of double bonds that exist in the fat’s molecular structure. For each of these three classes, there exists a large number of different chemical variations or “isomers”.

Isomer designation – the first number of this designation indicates how many carbon atoms are in the fatty acid molecule, and the number after the colon indicates the number of double bonds. Omega-3 and omega-6 isomers include “n-3” and “n-6” markings, and the letters c and t are used to indicate whether the double bonds are in cis or trans configurations.

This table includes systematic (non-numerical) names, as well as common names.

Fatty Acid Equivalent Names

Type

Isomer Systematic Name Common Name

Saturated Fats

4:0 butanoic acid butyric acid
6:0 hexanoic acid caproic acid
8:0 octanoic acid caprylic acid

10:0

decanoic acid capric acid
12:0 dodecanoic acid lauric acid
13:0 tridecanoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
14:0 tetradecanoic acid myristic acid
15:0 pentadecanoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
16:0 hexadecanoic acid palmitic acid
17:0 heptadecanoic acid margaric acid

18:0

octadecanoic acid stearic acid
19:0 nonadecanoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:0 eicosanoic acid arachidic acid
22:0 docosanoic acid behenic acid
24:0 tetracosanoic acid lignoceric acid
Type Isomer Systematic Name Common Name
Monounsaturated Fats 14:1 tetradecenoic acid myristoleic acid
15:1 pentadecenoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
16:1 undifferentiated hexadecenoic acid palmitoleic acid
16:1 c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
16:1 t http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
17:1 heptadecenoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:1 undifferentiated octadecenoic acid oleic acid
18:1 c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:1 t http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:1 eicosenoic acid gadoleic acid
22:1 undifferentiated docosenoic acid erucic acid
22:1 c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
22:1 t http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
24:1 c cis-tetracosenoic acid nervonic acid
Type Isomer Systematic Name Common Name
Polyunsaturated Fats 16:2 undifferentiated hexadecadienoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:2 undifferentiated octadecadienoic acid linoleic acid
18:2 n-6 c,c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:2 c,t http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:2 t,c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:2 t,t http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:2 i http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:2 t not further defined http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
18:3 undifferentiated octadecatrienoic acid linolenic acid (LA)
18:3 n-3 c,c,c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)
18:3 n-6 c,c,c http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif gamma-linolenic acid
18:4 undifferentiated octadecatetraenoic acid parinaric acid
20:2 n-6 c,c eicosadienoic acid http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:3 undifferentiated

eicosatrienoic acid

http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:3 n-3 http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:3 n-6

http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif

http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:4 undifferentiated eicosatetraenoic acid arachidonic acid
20:4 n-3

http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif

http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:4 n-6 http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/1.gif
20:5 n-3

eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)

timnodonic acid
22:2 docosadienoic acid

brassic acid

22:5 n-3 docosapentaenoic acid (DPA)

clupanodonic acid

22:6 n-3

docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)

Read More http://nutritiondata.self.com/topics/fatty-acids#ixzz2fBMVMkDu

Essential fatty acid metabolism

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High Omega 6 PUFAs:  Highly Processed Industrial Seed or Vegetable Oils (soybean oil, peanut oil, corn oil, canola oil/rapeseed oil, grapeseed oil, safflower oil, sunflower oil, cottonseed oil).
PROTEIN

Must be broken down into their component Amino Acids to be used for growth or repair.  Can also be converted to glucose for fuel or subsequently into triglycerides and stored as fatty acids.

Examples: Meat, fish, eggs, dairy, soy

Table of AMINO ACIDS:

Essential Nonessential
Histidine Alanine
Isoleucine Arginine*
Leucine Asparagine
Lysine Aspartic acid
Methionine Cysteine*
Phenylalanine Glutamic acid
Threonine Glutamine*
Tryptophan Glycine
Valine Ornithine*
Proline*
Selenocysteine*
Serine*
Tyrosine*

(*) Essential only in certain cases.

 

CARBOHYDRATE

Generally Starches and Sugars are all broken down into their smallest component and used as glucose for fuel or storage (as glycogen or converted and stored as fatty acids).  Fibers and Fructose are handled differently…

Examples: Starches, sugars, cereal, flour, bread, fruit, potatoes

Carbohydrates (aka saccharides) are divided into four groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.  Mono- and disaccharides are smaller and generally called “sugars”.

The terms “Simple” (candy, table sugar, fruit) and “Complex” (cereals, breads, pasta) are informal, do not necessarily have significance, and can lead to confusion.

MONOSACCHARIDES

glucose (dextrose)

fructose

galactose

 

DISACCHARIDES

sucrose (glucose + fructose): table sugar, cane sugar, beet sugar, saccharose

maltose (glucose + glucose): malt sugar

lactose (glucose + galactose): milk sugar

lactulose (galactose + fructose)

others: trehalose, cellobiose, chitobiose

 

OLIGOSACCHARIDES

fucto-oligosaccharide

galactooligosaccharide

 

POLYSACCHARIDES

starch (a polymer of glucose)

amylose

amylopectin

glycogen

dietary fiber:

  • soluble fiber (fructans, inulin, pectin, alginic acid)
    • sources: fruits, vegetables, legumes, algae
  • insoluble fiber (beta-glucans: cellulose, chitin. Hemicellulosen, Lingin, Xanthan)
    • sources: plants, fruits, vegetables, cereals, wheat, rye, oats, legumes, insects
  • inulin and oligofructose (onions, garlic, leeks, chichory root, aspargus)
  • resistant starch (bannana, legumes, heated and cooled starches)

 

The GLYCEMIC INDEX and GLYCEMIC LOAD are scientific calculations that can tell you how quickly and to what extend a particular food will impact your blood sugars.  **more on this topic to follow**

 

MICRONUTRIENTS 

Essential vitamins, minerals, electrolytes, and trace elements

Vitamins:

  • Water Soluble: thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), pyridoxine (B6), cobalamine (B12), niacin, pantothanic acide, folic acid, biotin, lipoic acid, vitamin C.
  • Fat Soluble: vitamins A, D, E, K.

Mineral Elements:

  • Major: calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sulfur, sodium, chloride, magnesium.
  • Trace: iron, iodine, copper, zinc, manganese, cobalt, chromium, selenium, molybdenum, fluorine, tin, silicon, vandium

Electrolytes:

Other:

  • inositol, choline, carnitine

 

PHYTONUTRIENTS:

This is a broad category of food elements typical from fruits in vegetables that have been identified and believed to have certain properties.

  • e.g. lycopene in tomatos
  • Polyphenols
    • Favonoids (anthocyanidins, flavones, flavanols, flavanones, flavonols, isoflavones)
    • Phenolic acids (hydroxycinnamates, hydroxybenzoates)
    • Non-flavonoids (stibenes, coumarins, lignans
  • Terpenes
    • Carotenoids, monoterpenes
  • Sulfur compounds (sulfides)
    • Dially sulfides, isothiocyanates
  • Saponins
    • Triterpenoids, steroids

 

ANTINUTRIENTS:

A broad range of substances found in food that may have various negative consequences when consumed.

  • e.g. lectins, phytates, nightshades

 

 

 **this page is under construction…check back for more updates**

 

macronutrients

 

 

 

Nutrient Appendix:

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Article: Glycemic Index