May 2014, Vol. 46, No. 3 , Pages 182-187 (doi:10.3109/07853890.2014.894286)
Background. Inflammation may play an important role in type 2 diabetes. It has been proposed that dietary strategies can modulate inflammatory activity.
Methods. We investigated the effects of diet on inflammation in type 2 diabetes by comparing a traditional low-fat diet (LFD) with a low-carbohydrate diet (LCD). Patients with type 2 diabetes were randomized to follow either LFD aiming for 55–60 energy per cent (E%) from carbohydrates (n = 30) or LCD aiming for 20 E% from carbohydrates (n = 29). Plasma was collected at baseline and after 6 months. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-6, tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) 1 and TNFR2 were determined.
Results. Both LFD and LCD led to similar reductions in body weight, while beneficial effects on glycaemic control were observed in the LCD group only. After 6 months, the levels of IL-1Ra and IL-6 were significantly lower in the LCD group than in the LFD group, 978 (664–1385) versus 1216 (974–1822) pg/mL and 2.15 (1.65–4.27) versus 3.39 (2.25–4.79) pg/mL, both P < 0.05.
Conclusions. To conclude, advice to follow LCD or LFD had similar effects on weight reduction while effects on inflammation differed. Only LCD was found significantly to improve the subclinical inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes.