Dietary Cholesterol: The Evidence (eggs).

Mounting evidence that exonerate EGGS, LOBSTER & SHRIMP etc.


Proposed 2015 US Dietary Guidelines for Americans


The report says dietary cholesterol now is “not considered a nutrient of concern for overconsumption.” This follows increasing medical research showing the amount of cholesterol in your bloodstream is more complicated than once thought.

The committee says available evidence “shows no appreciable relationship” between heart disease and how much dietary cholesterol you eat……….the panel doesn’t give a specific recommendation for how much cholesterol — or eggs — a person may eat.


May 14, 2015

Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics Commends Strong Evidence-Based Dietary Guidelines Report.

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, the world’s largest organization of food and nutrition professionals, commends the 2015 Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee for drafting a strong, evidence-based Scientific Report outlining recommendations and rational for the forthcoming 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. The Academy supports these recommendations that will improve how and what Americans eat.

In comments recently submitted to USDA and HHS, the Academy supports the DGAC in its decision to drop dietary cholesterol from the nutrients of concern list and recommends it deemphasize saturated fat from nutrients of concern, given the lack of evidence connecting it with cardiovascular disease.

“Despite some criticism suggesting that changed recommendations illustrate concerns about the validity of the nutrition science upon which the Dietary Guidelines are based, the DGAC should change its recommendations to be consistent with the best available science and to abide by its statutory mandate,” Connor said.

The Academy also expresses concern over blanket sodium restriction recommendations in light of recent evidence of potential harm to the overall population. “There is a distinct and growing lack of scientific consensus on making a single sodium consumption recommendation for all Americans, owing to a growing body of research suggesting that the low sodium intake levels recommended by the DGAC are actually associated with increased mortality for healthy individuals,” Connor said.

The Academy supports an increased focus on reduction of added sugars as a key public health concern. “Among the identified cross-cutting issues, the evidence is strongest that a reduction in the intake of added sugars will improve the health of the American public. The identification and recognition of the specific health risks posed by added sugars represents an important step forward for public health,” Connor said.

The final 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans are expected to be released at the end of this year.


American Journal of Clinical Nutrition April 1, 2015

Egg consumption and risk of incident type 2 diabetes in men: the Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study


Background: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing around the world. Eggs are a major source of cholesterol, which has been associated with elevated blood glucose and an increased risk of T2D. However, there are limited and conflicting data from prospective population studies on the association between egg consumption and risk of T2D.

Objective: We investigated the association between egg consumption and risk of incident T2D in middle-aged and older men from eastern Finland.

Design: The study included 2332 men aged 42–60 y in 1984–1989 at the baseline examinations of the prospective, population-based Kuopio Ischemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study. Dietary intakes were assessed with 4-d food records at baseline. Incident T2D was assessed by self-administered questionnaires; by fasting and 2-h oral-glucose-tolerance-test blood glucose measurement at re-examination rounds 4, 11, and 20 y after baseline; and by record linkage to a hospital discharge registry and reimbursement register of diabetes medication expenses. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to estimate associations with the risk of incident T2D. Associations with the metabolic risk markers at baseline and at the 4-y examinations were analyzed by ANCOVA.

Results: During an average follow-up of 19.3 y, 432 men developed T2D. After adjustment for potential confounders, those in the highest vs. the lowest egg intake quartile had a 38% (95% CI: 18%, 53%; P-trend across quartiles <0.001) lower risk of incident T2D. Analyses with metabolic risk markers also suggested an inverse association with fasting plasma glucose and serum C-reactive protein but not with serum insulin. The associations between cholesterol intake and risk of T2D, plasma glucose, serum insulin, and C-reactive protein were mainly nonsignificant, especially after accounting for egg consumption.

Conclusion: Higher egg intake was associated with a lower risk of T2D in this cohort of middle-aged and older men.



Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2010 Nov;12(6):377-83. doi: 10.1007/s11883-010-0130-7.

Revisiting dietary cholesterol recommendations: does the evidence support a limit of 300 mg/d?

Fernandez ML, Calle M.


Department of Nutritional Sciences, the University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.


The perceived association between DIETARY CHOLESTEROL and risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) has resulted in recommendations of no more than 300 mg/d for healthy persons in the United States. These dietary recommendations proposed in the 1960s had little scientific evidence other than the known association between saturated fat and cholesterol and animal studies where cholesterol was fed in amounts far exceeding normal intakes. In contrast, European countries, Asian countries, and Canada do not have an upper limit for DIETARY CHOLESTEROL. Further, current epidemiologic data have clearly demonstrated that increasing concentrations of DIETARY CHOLESTEROL are not correlated with increased risk for CHD. Clinical studies have shown that even if DIETARY CHOLESTEROL may increase plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol in certain individuals (hyper-responders), this is always accompanied by increases in high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, so the LDL/HDL cholesterol ratio is maintained. More importantly, DIETARY CHOLESTEROL reduces circulating levels of small, dense LDL particles, a well-defined risk factor for CHD. This article presents recent evidence from human studies documenting the lack of effect of DIETARY CHOLESTEROL on CHD risk, suggesting that guidelines for DIETARY CHOLESTEROL should be revisited.




Effects of eggs on plasma lipoproteins in healthy populations.

Fernandez ML.


Department of Nutritional Sciences, The University of Connecticut, 3624 Horsebarn Road Extension, Storrs, CT 06269, USA.


Extensive research has not clearly established a link between egg consumption and risk for coronary heart disease. This lack of connection can be explained by two major reasons: First, eggs are a good source of numerous nutrients including lutein and zeaxanthin, potent antioxidants, which may exert a protective effect against lipoprotein oxidation. Second, it has been well established that dietary cholesterol increases the concentrations of both circulating LDL and HDL cholesterol in those individuals who experience a higher increase in plasma cholesterol following egg consumption (hyper-responders). It is also important to note that 75% of the population experiences a mild increase or no alterations in plasma cholesterol concentrations when challenged with high amounts of dietary cholesterol (normal responders and hypo-responders). Egg intake has been shown to promote the formation of large LDL and HDL subclasses in addition to shifting individuals from the LDL pattern B to pattern A, which is less atherogenic. For these reasons, dietary recommendations aimed at restricting egg consumption should be taken with caution and not include all individuals. We need to acknowledge that diverse healthy populations experience no risk in developing coronary heart disease by increasing their intake of cholesterol but in contrast, they may have multiple beneficial effects by the inclusion of eggs in their regular diet.



Other articles to read:

Eggs and Cholesterol

Consuming egg yolks with vegetables INCREASES nutritive value.  Combining cooked eggs with vegetables increased carotenoid absorption 3-9 fold (beta-carotene, alpha-caroten, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin). Researches will further explore the effect on fat soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.


egg hearts


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